Brief Introduction to SVPs
The term ‘parenteral’ refers to injectable route of administration. It is actually derived from Greek words ‘Para’ which means ‘Outside’ and ‘Enteron’ which means ‘Intestine’. In other words, the word ‘parenteral’ refers to a route of administration other than the alimentary canal. The usual routes include the sub-cutaneous, intra-muscular, intra venous and SVP as well as LVP. It is an injection that is packaged in containers (or vials, cartridges, syringes, bottles, ampoules) labeled as containing 100 ml or less. As per the USP 24/NF 19, the definition of small volume parenteral is “Those preparations intended for injection through the skin or other external boundary tissue, rather than the alimentary canal – so that the active substances are administered using gravity or force directly into the blood vessel, organ, tissue or lesion”.
Details of Kinds of SVPs
The main kinds of SVPs are described below:
As depicted in Fig-1, these refer to sealed glass containers with an elongated neck that must be broken off. For easy breaking, most of the ampoules are weakened around the neck. These usually have a colored band around the neck.
Usually, to draw the contents of an ampule into a syringe, a 5 micron filter needle should be used. This is because there is a possibility that glass particles may have fallen inside the ampule when the top was snapped off. At times, it is advisable to wrap a small piece of gauze or alcohol wipe around the top of the ampule before breaking it.
Various additives and drugs are packaged in vials either as liquids or lyophilized powders. There are usually sealed with a rubber stop and are made of glass or plastic. Usually, a needle is used to add or withdraw the contents.
Before withdrawal of contents, usually, equal volume of air is injected into the vial to pressurize it and assist in content withdrawal.
3. DRY POWDERS
These refer to freeze-dried or lyophilized formulations that must be reconstituted with some suitable solvent to make a liquid formulation. Drugs which are usually not stable in liquid form are put in powder form for use.
4. PREFILLED SYRINGES
These refer to syringes which are prefilled with drug solution. These consist of two kinds: cartridge type package and needle unit. Once the needle of the syringe is used, they are discarded. However, the holder is put to use again with a new unit.
Other Related Details of SVPs
Parenteral injections could include various products such as pharmaceutical products, biological products, biotechnology products, genetically engineered products, allergenic extracts, liposome and lipid products, radiopharmaceutical products, and others. The types of preparations could be drug injection, drug injectable emulsion, drug injectable suspension and others.
The containers usually used for parenteral packaging are glass, plastic and rubber. Parenterals are usually processed well before being put to use. These steps include: cleaning of containers, collection of materials, preparation of parenteral products, filtration, filling preparation in containers, sealing containers, sterilization, evaluation of parenteral preparation, labeling and packaging.
Brief Introduction to Pre-Engineered Buildings
Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB) refer to steel structure buildings that are usually engineered at a factory and assembled at the site. These buildings are the latest trend in India. The built-up sections are normally fabricated at the factory to exact size, transported, and then assembled with bolted connections at the site.
In structural engineering, these buildings are designed by PEB supplier or PEB manufacturer using various methods and materials to satisfy aesthetic design requirements. PEBs are becoming increasingly common due to custom-aided designs. The preferred choice of material for design is steel as it is inherently flexible and ductile. Steel is known to flex under extreme loads rather than crumbling or crushing. Structural steel is used which is known to have adaptability, low cost, recyclability, durability and design flexibility. Thus, it is the material of choice for building construction. Steel is extensively used for such projects for medium and heavy buildings where it is not feasible to have concrete construction.
PEBs are designed by a manufacturer to be fabricated using specific raw materials as inventory and various manufacturing methods that suffice the aesthetic design requirements. These buildings can be fitted with different structural accessories including interior partitions, canopies, mezzanine floors and much more. These are water proof buildings with the use of trims, filler strips and special mastic beads.
The various components of PEBs are depicted. Complete designing of the building is done at the factory and these components are then brought to the site in knock down condition. A pre-engineered building that is efficiently designed is mostly lighter than the conventional steel buildings.
Ø Advantages of PEBs
ü PEBs are known to drastically reduce construction time. PEBs relate to low maintenance too.
ü These buildings are known for optimal utilization of resources and are known for maximum leverage of technology.
ü These buildings have gained a global reputation for durability, water resistance and earthquake resistance.
ü These buildings are extremely versatile and are easy to set-up, modify and transport to different locations.
ü PEBs are known to be environmentally friendly and have unique aesthetic features.
ü PEBs can be delivered in just about 5-8 weeks to the site.
ü Various unique techniques are deployed during fabrication which in turn leads to making these buildings lighter than regular steel structures.
ü These buildings do not involve any kind of welding or fabrication at the site – thus are known for their increased efficiency.
ü PEBs depict architectural versatility as these can be supplied with various types of fascia’s, canopies, curved eaves, concrete wall panels, blocked walls, curtain walls and other wall systems.
ü PEBs assure compatibility of all building components and accessories as the complete building package is taken by a single vendor.
Ø APPLICATIONS OF PEBs
PEBs have diverse applications as factories, warehouses, aircraft hangers, workshops, labour camps, schools, community centers, railway stations, equipment housing, office buildings, supermarkets, petrol pumps, service buildings, and others.
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